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Neha Chaudhary

May 25, 2024

Getting started with development on Solana

Mastering Solana's Ecosystem: Tools, Resources, and Best Practices

Getting started with Solana development can be overwhelming for a beginner programmer. To ease your understanding of Solana development, this guide covers all the tools and basic requirements to begin development on Solana. Let’s start with understanding what Solana is and its significance in the blockchain ecosystem. The blog is intended to provide a strong grasp of Solana development for beginners and experienced programmers both. After reading this guide, readers will have a visualization of the Solana environment and will be able to get started with the Solana development enabling them to develop and deploy their decentralized applications on this powerful platform.

Overview of Solana and Its Importance in Blockchain

Solana is a blockchain platform known for fast and secure transactions and providing support in developing decentralized applications and cryptocurrencies. Solana is particularly known for its low transaction costs and impressive speed enabling it to handle thousands of transactions per second (TPS). Due to these advantages, it has a variety of use cases including finance, gaming, NFTs, decentralized autonomous organization, decentralized exchanges, identity and authentication, and more. Solana functions as a unified global state machine, maintaining openness, compatibility, and a decentralized nature.

Why Develop on Solana?

Solana is a scalable platform designed to build and deploy decentralized applications. Solana is one of the fastest blockchains available there with a capacity of 65,000 transactions per second. It has comparably low transaction costs as compared to other blockchain platforms and prioritizes energy efficiency. Above all, businesses are adopting Solana in their business models as it is backed by ample support and a vibrant community.

What is Solana?

Solana: Definition and Background

Solana is a blockchain platform that aims to facilitate the development of decentralized applications and support cryptocurrencies. Solana has an innovative consensus mechanism and the proof of history is a core component to achieve such high throughput and low latency. Due to this, Solana is distinguished from the other blockchain platforms.

Let’s explore the history of Solana and the features that make it unique among the other blockchain platforms.

The History and Founding of Solana

Back in 2017, Anatoly Yekovenko proposed an idea of distributed systems which was called Proof of History. The first whitepaper documents the proof of history. It helps improve the transaction speeds, scalability, and settlement times. Anatoly aimed to propose a solution for the low transaction rates for Bitcoin and Ethereum. Combining 40 years of distribution, he proposed a solution that was 10,000 faster. 

Key Features and Benefits of Solana

Some of the features why Solana is considered an ideal platform to build and develop decentralized applications are stated below.

  • Improved Scalability
  • Growing Marketing Demand 
  • Low Fees
  • Advanced Features
  • Onchain Program Development
  • 400ms Slot Times
  • Evergrowing Community

Understanding Solana's Architecture

Proof of History (PoH) Explained

Solana’s Proof of History is a consensus mechanism verifying the time required between two successful computational events. A consensus mechanism combines all the nodes of a distributed blockchain system into a unified dataset. It acts as a cryptographic clock that records the timestamps at each transaction making sure that the events are rightly aligned. PoH is based on the idea that the order of the event is more important than the events itself. This is done to maintain the network integrity. The time is recorded by generating a sequence of hashes that can be verified. This is important to ensure consistent and accurate transactions in blockchain. The blockchain integrates time as a first-class element. What makes Solana different is that it delivers a passage of time that can be verified, unlike other blockchains that depend upon the order of blocks to determine the sequence of events. Through PoH, a larger volume of transactions is processed as the nodes synchronize and process the transactions faster by reducing the communication overhead.

Tower BFT (Byzantine Fault Tolerance)

Tower BFT is Solana’s consensus algorithm is based upon a PoH clock to get to the consensus on the network. It is a computer system that is operational even if some of the nodes fail or act maliciously. It is responsible for the distribution system to work properly and ultimately reach the consensus point. The nodes in the network are organized into layers where the function of each layer is to confirm a transaction. PoH is used as a global source of time enabling the validators to vote on the state of the ledger at particular intervals. The greater overhead which is often associated with the traditional BFT algorithms tends to reduce using this approach as it minimizes the amount of communication needed between the nodes. It makes sure that the network can hold up to one-third of the malicious validators while simultaneously maintaining the integrity and security of the system.

Turbine: The Blockbuilt  Propagation Protocol

Solana uses the block propagation protocol Turbine, which is best adapted for data streaming throughout the network. This design is packetizing, breaking at the block boundaries, and propagating them efficiently to deliver both low bandwidth and high throughput. This design ensures that even under degraded network conditions, the data hits all the nodes very quickly and reliably.

Gulf Stream: Mempool-less Transaction Forwarding

the Gulf Stream doesn't have a mempool in the classic sense: it just forwards transactions as fast as it can to the next block producer set without waiting for confirmations, leading to fast transaction processing and low latency that can enable handling large transaction volumes over the network with low confirmation times.

Sealevel: Parallel Smart Contract Runtime

Sealevel is a parallel runtime for Solana that enables potentially millions of independent smart contracts to be run at the same time. Unlike traditional blockchains, which generally serialize the processing of transactions, Sealevel will leverage today's multicore processors to execute thousands of smart contracts in parallel—ultimately increasing throughput and efficiency.

Pipelining in Solana

Pipelining is an optimization technique in Solana for transaction data processing. As a process that can break down transaction processing into a series of stages where each puts to rest a particular process of the transaction, Solana can achieve higher throughput with less latency. This approach guarantees that different stages carry out concurrent operations, making the network efficient.

Cloudbreak: Horizontally-Scaled Accounts Database

Horizontally scalable key-value storage, as used by Cloudbreak, solves this problem of operating large-scale account data in Solana, as it allows the network to maintain performance while data amounts grow. It is scoped and designed to make both access and storage of data very fast and efficient, no matter the size of the network.

Setting Up Your Solana Development Environment

Here is a step-by-step process for setting up your Solana development environment. 


Before you dive into setting up your Solana development environment, there are some prerequisites required.

  1. Basic Programming Knowledge

Before you get started with Solana blockchain development, having fundamental programming knowledge is important to start building on Solana. You should be familiar with programming languages such as Javascript, Python, and Rust. You should also be able to write, debug, and understand what is happening at the backend.

  1. Understanding of Blockchain Concepts

A strong grasp of the blockchain fundamental concepts like the working of blockchains, consensus mechanisms, smart contracts, and building and deploying DApps is crucial for setting up the blockchain environment. This is important for you to understand how Solana differs from other blockchain platforms.

Required Tools and Software

Several tools and software are required to start with the development on Solana. The following diagram gives an overall view of a Solana blockchain environment.

Architecture Overview of Solana Programs and Client Interaction

  1. Installing Solana CLI

Solana CLI is important to communicate with the Solana network. The very first step towards the development on Solana involves the installation of Solana CLI. It helps in the management of accounts, transference of SOL tokens, deploying smart contracts, and more.

To install the Solana CLI, first open up your terminal and run the following command in your terminal.

sh -c "$(curl -sSfL https://release.solana.com/stable/install)"

The next step is to add the Solana CLI to your system’s path by adding the following line to your shell configuration file (.bashrc, .zshrc, etc.).

export PATH="$HOME/.local/share/solana/install/active_release/bin:$PATH"

Make sure it is installed by restarting your terminal or another way is to run source ~/.bashrc to apply the changes. The installation can be verified by running the command.

solana --version

The following command will provide information about the version which will confirm the installation of Solana.

  1. Setting Up Solana SDKs: JavaScript, Rust, and More

Software Development Kits (SDKs) provide libraries and tools that make the development on Solana convenient. Primarily, the Solana Web3.js SDK is used, and the other is the Rust SDK. Both these SDKs come with pre-built functions and utilities that facilitate the development.  Select an SDK that is suitable to what programming language you prefer. 

JavaScript SDK (Solana Web3.js)

The JavaScript SDK can be set up by opening up your project directory or creating a new one.

mkdir solana-project
cd solana-project

The Node.js project can be initialized by

npm init -y

The Solana Web3.js package can be installed through the npm package manager using the following command.

npm install @solana/web3.js

Rust SDK

Make sure that you have rust installed in your system. If it is not installed in the system, you may install it using the command.

curl --proto '=https' --tlsv1.2 -sSf https://sh.rustup.rs | sh

Next, add the Solana Rust SDK to your Cargo.toml file in your Rust project.

solana-client = "1.8.2"
solana-sdk = "1.8.2"

  1. Setting Up an IDE (e.g., Visual Studio Code)

Configuring the development environment is important to get started with the Solana development. There should be an active IDE where you may configure Solana. One famous IDE is Visual Studio Code which is a light version of Visual Studio and is widely used for development purposes. Visual Studio Code can be installed from here. For the proper functioning of Solana development, the relevant extensions shall be installed

  • Rust: Install the "rust-analyzer" extension.
  • JavaScript/TypeScript: Install the "JavaScript (ES6) code snippets" extension.

Set your Solana CLI to connect to the desired network (devnet, testnet, or mainnet-beta). For development, use devnet:

solana config set --url https://api.devnet.solana.com

  • Generate a new keypair for your development work:

solana-keygen new

  • Verify your configuration:

solana config get

Understanding Solana Development Basics

Solana accounts and data structures

Solana uses an account-based model. It is crucial to learn how data and programs interact within the blockchain. This section goes through a few foundational concepts on accounts and programs in Solana.


Account in a core data structure in Solana that holds the information about its state. Each account has a uniquely identifiable address that can store data, SOL (the native token of the Solana blockchain), and other various farmable tokens. Solana accounts are often thought of as being similar to other blockchain accounts but significantly more potent and flexible. There are mainly two types of accounts:

  • System Account: These are basic accounts where all the SOL tokens are kept and can be used for transactions of any fees or rent.
  • Program Accounts: These are associated with executable programs that happen to be on the Solana blockchain. They contain the code and state information associated with the program.

The applications manage their accounts, and a program to which access has been granted can read from or write into an account. An account is transformed into a new state solely by the application that owns it.


Solana Programs are the counterparts to smart contracts in other platforms. It is executable code that runs on the blockchain, is responsible for handling and maintaining account states, and is written in Rust or C and compiled into BPF (Berkeley Packet Filter) bytecode. Subsequently, the BPF code is executed by the Solana Runtime.

One can deploy programs to the blockchain, and then transactions are executed that use the facilities the program provides. Instructions may be sent to the program as parts of transactions. Each program is going to have its address.

Key concepts

Understanding these key ideas: transactions, instructions, program lifecycle, and program-derived addresses (PDAs), is important for a developer and it will impact your effectiveness as a Solana developer.

Transactions and instructions

In transactions, multiple directions are packed together as one single atomic unit. A transaction may be handling many accounts and programs, which it successfully completed at the end—or none at all. Each transaction holds the following information:

  • A list of instructions
  • Accounts involved mentioned
  • Recent block-hash for validation
  • Signatures of signatories required

Instructions are the basic operations under each transaction. They indicate which program needs to be called, and it has the required data and accounts included with it, along with the specific accounts that are included to make the called program execute. An instruction is characterized as follows:

  • Program ID to be invoked
  • The accounts that are pending for read or write
  • Data to be acted upon by the program

Solana program lifecycle

The life cycle of a Solana program goes through the following stages.

  • Write: Develop the program in Rust or C.
  • Compiling: Compiling the program to BPF bytecode.
  • Deployment: This is the stage when the compiled program is deployed to the Solana blockchain, and in turn, the program is assigned a unique program ID.
  • Interacting: Transmissions of transactions that call the program, and pass instructions and data to it.

Program Derived Addresses (PDAs)

Program-derived addresses are special addresses that are deterministically generated by programs; they're therefore used to create unique, program-specific addresses, not controlled by any private key. They are normally utilized for generating associated accounts that are secure under the management of the programs.

This is done by deriving the PDA through the base public key, a seed, and the program ID to make sure each time a program is the same, it generates the same PDA for the same input parameters.

Development workflow

The development workflow consists of the general Solana development workflow: Write, Deploy, Test, and Interact with Solana Programs.


The steps involved in writing a Solana program are described below.

  • Setting up the development environment along with the necessary tools and dependencies.
  • Write program logic in Rust or C according to the Solana programming model and conventions.
  • Utilize the Solana SDK and libraries to interact with accounts and other blockchain features.


Deploying a Solna program includes the following steps.

  • Program compiles into BPF bytecode.
  • Program deployment on blockchain Solana with the help of Solana CLI or any other means of deployment.
  • Provides the program a unique program ID, which will be used in later invocation of the program in transactions.


  • Prepare unit tests to verify the logic of the programs.
  • Use emulators with local test validators in place of a blockchain environment.
  • It will deploy the program to the test network, such as Solana Devnet, so that integration testing can be done under real network conditions.

Interacting with Solana programs

  • Sending transactions with instructions to the program.
  • Using the Solana Web3.js or similar package of SDKs to allow transaction building and signing.
  • Monitoring the blockchain for confirmations of your transaction and handling the results.

Follow this development workflow to effectively write, deploy, test, interact with Solana programs, and build scalable decentralized applications directly on the Solana blockchain conveniently.

Writing Your First Solana Program

Solana Program Library (SPL)

SPL stands for Solana Program Library. These on-chain programs are bundled for Solana developers, giving them the rudimentary force to build fast, complex applications. They are built on reusability, composability, and efficiency so that one can easily build applications on Solana swiftly and securely.

Overview of SPL

More importantly, there are standard programs encoded with the SPL to implement common functionalities that any decentralized application would need, such as token management, governance, and a variety of other utility functions upon which developers can work without reinventing the wheel. SPL attempts to amass code that is reliable, tested, and quite optimized so that developers can trust it for important tasks that are run on the Solana blockchain.

Commonly used SPL libraries

Some commonly used SPL libraries include:

  • SPL Token: Functionality to create, transfer, and manage fungible and nonfungible tokens (token-drops) on Solana. An important library for all applications interacting with tokenized assets.
  • SPL Governance: This made room for on-chain governance tools that, in turn, made the required decentralized organization for taking care of decision-making processes and voting possible.
  • SPL Memo: Simple program to attach arbitrary messages to transactions, useful for attaching meta or notes.
  • SPL Associated Token Account: This is responsible for the creation and interactions of associated token accounts, thereby making the interactions with token balances rather straightforward.

Creating a simple Solana program

In this section, we will write, deploy, and interact with a simple Solana program. In the example we'll create, the program performs the daily task of incrementing a stored value each time the program gets invoked.

Writing the program in Rust

First, set up your development environment for Rust and Solana. You should have the Rust toolchain and the Solana CLI installed.

Step-by-step Guide on Writing a Simple Increment Program

  • Create a new Rust project

cargo init solana_increment_program --lib
cd solana_increment_program

In the above code,

  • Initializes a new Cargo library project named solana_increment_program.
  • The --lib flag indicates that the project is a library, not an executable.
  • Changes the current directory to solana_increment_program.
  • Prepares the environment to work within the newly created project directory.
  • Add Solana dependencies to Cargo.toml

solana-program = "1.8.2"
borsh = "0.9.1" # for serialization

In the above code,


  • Lists the external crates (libraries) that your Rust project depends on.

            solana-program = "1.8.2"

  • Specifies that the project depends on the Solana-program crate, version 1.8.2.
  • This crate provides the necessary functions and types to interact with Solana's runtime.

            borsh = "0.9.1"

  • Specifies that the project depends on the borsh crate, version 0.9.1.
  • borsh is used for serialization and deserialization, allowing data to be efficiently encoded and decoded.

  • Program logic

The next thing you will do is open the “src/lib.rs” file and replace its content with the following code. The program explains how a simplified counter is defined. The program tends to increase each stored value every time the program is called.

use borsh::{BorshDeserialize, BorshSerialize};
use solana_program::{
    account_info::{next_account_info, AccountInfo},

#[derive(BorshSerialize, BorshDeserialize, Debug)]
pub struct Counter {
    pub count: u32,


pub fn process_instruction(
    program_id: &Pubkey,
    accounts: &[AccountInfo],
    _instruction_data: &[u8],
) -> ProgramResult {
    msg!("Increment Program Entry Point");

    let accounts_iter = &mut accounts.iter();
    let account = next_account_info(accounts_iter)?;

    if account.owner != program_id {
        msg!("Account does not have the correct program id");
        return Err(ProgramError::IncorrectProgramId);

    let mut counter_data = Counter::try_from_slice(&account.data.borrow())?;
    counter_data.count += 1;
    counter_data.serialize(&mut &mut account.data.borrow_mut()[..])?;

    msg!("Counter incremented to: {}", counter_data.count);


In the above code,

  • Imports: Uses Borsh for serialization and Solana program utilities.
  • Defines Counter struct: With count field and derives Borsh serialization.
  • Entry Point: entry point!(process_instruction) sets process_instruction as the entry point.

process_instruction function in the above code:

  • Logs entry point message.
  • Iterates accounts, checks owner against program_id, errors if mismatched.
  • Deserializes account data to Counter, increments count, and re-serializes data.
  • Logs new counter value and returns Ok(()).

  • Build the program

The program can be built into BPF bytecode and subsequently deployed to the Solana blockchain by the following command.

cargo build-bpf

Deploying the program to the devnet/testnet

  • Create a new key pair for your application

solana-keygen new --outfile ~/my_solana_program-keypair.json

  • Deploy the program

solana program deploy /path/to/your_program.so --keypair ~/my_solana_program-keypair.json

The program ID is displayed after the deployment as it is needed to interact with the program.

Interacting with the deployed program

  • Create an account to store the counter data

solana-keygen new --outfile ~/counter_account-keypair.json
solana create-account ~/counter_account-keypair.json <program_id> 0.001

  • Invoke the program

Transactions can be sent to your program via a client application, and this can be done quite easily with the help of a JavaScript client application. Here is a simple example using Solana Web3.js:

const solanaWeb3 = require('@solana/web3.js');
const fs = require('fs');

const connection = new solanaWeb3.Connection(solanaWeb3.clusterApiUrl('devnet'), 'confirmed');
const payer = solanaWeb3.Keypair.fromSecretKey(Uint8Array.from(JSON.parse(fs.readFileSync('~/counter_account-keypair.json'))));
const programId = new solanaWeb3.PublicKey('<program_id>');
const counterAccount = solanaWeb3.Keypair.fromSecretKey(Uint8Array.from(JSON.parse(fs.readFileSync('~/counter_account-keypair.json'))));

async function incrementCounter() {
    const instruction = new solanaWeb3.TransactionInstruction({
        keys: [{ pubkey: counterAccount.publicKey, isSigner: false, isWritable: true }],

    const transaction = new solanaWeb3.Transaction().add(instruction);
    await solanaWeb3.sendAndConfirmTransaction(connection, transaction, [payer]);

    const accountInfo = await connection.getAccountInfo(counterAccount.publicKey);
    const count = accountInfo.data.readUInt32LE(0);
    console.log('Counter:', count);


In the above code,

  • Imports: Requires @solana/web3.js for Solana blockchain interaction and fs for reading keypair files.
  • Connection: Establishes a connection to the Solana devnet with confirmed commitment.
  • Keypairs: Loads the payer and counterAccount keypairs from JSON files.
  • Program ID: Defines the Solana program's public key.

incrementCounter Function in the above code:

  • Constructs a transaction instruction to increment the counter.
  • Adds the instruction to a new transaction and sends it, confirming with the payer.
  • Fetches account info for counterAccount, reads the counter value and logs it.

This code sets up the connection, loads necessary keypairs, constructs a transaction to interact with the Solana program, and logs the counter value. The following script increases the counter by one and retrieves the value of the counter, displaying the current count at each run. With that, you have written, deployed, and interacted with a simple Solana program, establishing the basics for more complex Solana development projects.

Advanced Solana Development

This section provides details on Solana's advanced development and how to design custom programs, optimize performance, and ensure security. It aims to help you understand and apply complex concepts when building robust, efficient, and secure decentralized applications.

Custom Program Development on Solana

Custom Solana-based programs are tailored solutions that leverage the blockchain's unique capabilities. Here’s an in-depth look at the critical aspects of designing and implementing these programs.

Designing Custom Programs

Custom program design begins with defining clear requirements and understanding the problem to be solved. For example, a decentralized voting system would require features for proposal creation, voting mechanisms, and result tallying. The architecture involves managing accounts, storing data, and enabling user interactions.

  • Requirements: Defining what the program needs to achieve, such as specific functionalities and user interactions.
  • Architecture: Structuring the program to include account management, data storage, and interaction points.
  • Programming Language: Rust is the primary language for Solana programs due to its performance and safety features.

Advanced Rust Programming Techniques

Mastering advanced Rust techniques is crucial for developing efficient Solana programs.

  • Ownership and Borrowing: Rust’s ownership model ensures memory safety by preventing data races. Understanding how to manage ownership and borrowing is essential for writing efficient and safe code.
  • Concurrency: Rust’s concurrency features, such as threads and async programming, allow for handling multiple tasks simultaneously, improving performance.
  • Error Handling: Rust’s Result and Option types provide a robust system for managing errors, ensuring that programs can handle unexpected situations gracefully.
  • Macros: Rust macros enable code reuse and reduce boilerplate, making programs more maintainable and readable.
  • Lifetimes: Lifetimes in Rust ensure that references are valid, preventing issues like dangling pointers.
  • Traits and Generics: Traits and generics in Rust allow for writing flexible and reusable code structures, making programs more modular and adaptable.

Optimizing Solana Program Performance

Learn best practices and techniques to optimize your Solana programs.

Best Practices for High-Performance Programs

Optimizing Solana programs involves several best practices:

  • Efficient Data Structures: Using compact and efficient data structures minimizes storage and processing overhead. Binary serialization formats like Borsh are often used to reduce data size.
  • Minimize Account Access: Reducing the number of accounts accessed in a transaction lowers execution time and improves performance.
  • Precompute Values: Frequently used values that rarely change should be precomputed and cached to save computational resources.

Leveraging Parallel Execution

Solana’s architecture supports parallel execution, enhancing performance significantly.

  • Sealevel Runtime: Solana’s Sealevel runtime allows for the parallel execution of multiple smart contracts. This capability leverages modern multi-core processors, handling multiple tasks simultaneously.
  • Non-Overlapping Transactions: Designing transactions to minimize dependencies enables concurrent processing, which improves throughput.
  • Partition Data: Distributing data across multiple accounts facilitates parallel processing, further enhancing performance.

Ensuring Security in Solana Development

Security is a paramount concern in blockchain development. Writing secure code and understanding common vulnerabilities is essential.

Writing Secure Smart Contracts

Writing secure smart contracts involves several key practices:

  • Input Validation: Ensuring that all inputs meet expected formats and constraints prevents malicious inputs from compromising the program.
  • Access Control: Implementing strict access controls restricts who can perform certain actions, protecting against unauthorized use.
  • Regular Audits: Conducting regular code audits helps identify and rectify potential vulnerabilities, ensuring the program remains secure.
  • Safe Rust Libraries: Using well-maintained and reviewed libraries ensures that the program relies on secure, reliable code.
  • Avoid Unsafe Code: Minimizing the use of unsafe Rust code helps maintain safety and prevent vulnerabilities.

Common Vulnerabilities and Mitigation Strategies

Understanding and mitigating common vulnerabilities is critical for secure Solana development:

  • Reentrancy Attacks: Reentrancy attacks occur when an external call is made before updating the state. Preventing these attacks involves avoiding state changes after external calls and using the checks-effects-interactions pattern.
  • Integer Overflow/Underflow: These vulnerabilities occur when calculations exceed the maximum or minimum value an integer can hold. Preventing them involves using Rust’s built-in checks or libraries like checked_add.
  • Unchecked External Calls: Always handling the result of external calls ensures that any errors are managed, preventing unexpected behaviors or vulnerabilities.

Building a Full-Stack dApp on Solana

A full-stack decentralized application (dApp) on Solana involves both front-end and back-end development. This section will walk you through the process of choosing a front-end framework, integrating with Solana using the JavaScript SDK, writing and deploying Solana programs, setting up a serverless backend, and connecting the front-end and back-end while handling transactions and user authentication.

Front-end development

Choosing a front-end framework (React, Vue, etc.)

The front-end framework that one may choose to work with for the web development project becomes one of the most important parts of the step. Popular choices include:

  • React: A very popular JavaScript library for building user interfaces, most widely used for single-page applications. React: With component-based architecture and a very large ecosystem.
  • Vue: The Progressive JavaScript Framework – This can work for any user interface construction because it's easy to use and simple, and it can serve as a good base for other libraries or projects.

Both are backed by strong communities and have many resources to get you up and running.

Integrating with Solana using the JavaScript SDK

Using the Solana Web3.js SDK to interact with the Solana blockchain from your front end. Here is a basic setup for the integration of Solana with a React application:

  • Set up a new React project

npx create-react-app solana-dapp
cd solana-dapp

  • Install Solana Web3.js

npm install @solana/web3.js

  • Integrate Solana into your React components

A new JavaScript file SolanaContext.js is made for managing the Solana connection and delivering it to the components.

import React, { createContext, useContext, useState, useEffect }

from 'react';
import { Connection, clusterApiUrl } from '@solana/web3.js';

const SolanaContext = createContext();

export const useSolana = () => {
    return useContext(SolanaContext);

export const SolanaProvider = ({ children }) => {
    const [connection, setConnection] = useState(null);

    useEffect(() => {
        const connection = new Connection(clusterApiUrl('devnet'), 'confirmed');
    }, []);

    return (
 value={{ connection }}>

In the above code,

  • Imports: React hooks (createContext, useContext, useState, useEffect) and Solana Web3.js (Connection, clusterApiUrl).
  • Context Creation: Creates SolanaContext for sharing the Solana connection state.
  • Custom Hook: useSolana returns the context value, providing access to the Solana connection.
  • Provider Component:some text
    • State: Manages connection state.
    • Effect: Initializes a Solana Connection to the devnet on the mount and sets it in state.
  • Context Provider: Wraps children components with SolanaContext.Provider, passing the connection value.

In the App.js, the application is completed with the ‘SolanaProvider’

import React from 'react';
import { SolanaProvider } from './SolanaContext';
import './App.css';

function App() {
    return (
p>Welcome to Solana dApp</p

export default App;

In the above code,

  • Importssome text
    • React.
    • SolanaProvider from SolanaContext.
    • CSS styles from App.css.
  • App Componentsome text
    • Wraps the application with SolanaProvider to provide Solana connection context.
    • Renders a div with class App containing a header with a welcome message.
  • Export: Exports the App component as the default export.

This code sets up a basic React application with Solana context, allowing the entire app to access the Solana connection.

Back-end development

Writing and deploying Solana programs

Writing a Solana program involves writing the logic of a smart contract in the Rust programming language, compiling it into BPF bytecode, and deploying it in the Solana blockchain.

  • Set up a new Rust project

cargo new solana-program --lib
cd solana-program

  • Add Solana dependencies to Cargo.toml

solana-program = "1.8.2"
borsh = "0.9.1" # for serialization

  • Create the program logic Open src/lib.rs and replace its contents with the following code

use borsh::{BorshDeserialize, BorshSerialize};
use solana_program::{
    account_info::{next_account_info, AccountInfo},

#[derive(BorshSerialize, BorshDeserialize, Debug)]
pub struct Counter {
    pub count: u32,


pub fn process_instruction(
    program_id: &Pubkey,
    accounts: &[AccountInfo],
    _instruction_data: &[u8],
) -> ProgramResult {
    msg!("Increment Program Entry Point");

    let accounts_iter = &mut accounts.iter();
    let account = next_account_info(accounts_iter)?;

    if account.owner != program_id {
        msg!("Account does not have the correct program id");
        return Err(ProgramError::IncorrectProgramId);

    let mut counter_data = Counter::try_from_slice(&account.data.borrow())?;
    counter_data.count += 1;
    counter_data.serialize(&mut &mut account.data.borrow_mut()[..])?;

    msg!("Counter incremented to: {}", counter_data.count);


In the above code,

  • Imports:
    • borsh: For serialization (BorshSerialize, BorshDeserialize).
    • solana_program: For Solana program utilities.
  • Define Counter Struct:
    • Contains a single field count of type u32.
    • Derives BorshSerialize and BorshDeserialize for serialization.
  • Entry Point:
    • entrypoint!(process_instruction): Declares process_instruction as the program's entry point.
  • process_instruction Function:
    • Parameters: program_id (program's public key), accounts (list of account info), _instruction_data (instruction data).
    • Log Entry Point: msg!("Increment Program Entry Point").
  • Account Validation:
    • Iterates through accounts to get the first account.
    • Checks if the account's owner matches program_id.
    • Returns error if the program ID does not match.
  • Counter Logic:
    • Deserializes account data into Counter.
    • Increments the count field.
    • Serializes updated Counter back into account data.

  • Log New Count: msg!("Counter incremented to: {}", counter_data.count).
  • Return: Ok(()) on successful execution.


  • Build the program

cargo build-bpf

  • Deploy the program

solana program deploy /path/to/your_program.so --keypair ~/my_solana_program-keypair.json

Setting up a serverless backend using Solana

A common serverless backend for a Solana-based dApp is the use of cloud functions or, in general, other serverless platforms to handle off-chain logic and interactions with the Solana blockchain.

For example with AWS Lambda

  • Create a Lambda function

npm install -g serverless
serverless create --template aws-nodejs --path solana-lambda
cd solana-lambda

  • Install dependencies

npm install @solana/web3.js

  • Write the Lambda function by editing handler.js

const { Connection, clusterApiUrl, Keypair, Transaction, SystemProgram } = require('@solana/web3.js');

module.exports.hello = async (event) => {
    const connection = new Connection(clusterApiUrl('devnet'), 'confirmed');
    const payer = Keypair.generate();

    const transaction = new Transaction().add(
            fromPubkey: payer.publicKey,
            toPubkey: new PublicKey('recipient-public-key'),
            lamports: 1000,

    await connection.sendTransaction(transaction, [payer]);

    return {
        statusCode: 200,
        body: JSON.stringify({ message: 'Transaction sent' }),

In the above code,

  • Imports: Requires Solana Web3.js modules (Connection, clusterApiUrl, Keypair, Transaction, SystemProgram).
  • Export Function: Defines and exports an asynchronous function hello.
  • Connection Setup: Connects to Solana devnet with confirmed commitment.
  • Generate Keypair: Creates a new payer keypair.
  • Create Transaction:some text
    • Constructs a transaction to transfer 1000 lamports from the payer to a specified recipient public key.
    • Uses SystemProgram.transfer for the transfer instruction.
  • Send Transaction: Sends the constructed transaction using the connection and payer keypair.
  • Return Response: Returns a JSON response with a status code of 200 and a message indicating the transaction was sent.

  • Deploy the function

serverless deploy

Connecting the front-end and back-end

Handling transactions and wallet integration

Users can manage accounts and sign right from the front end with wallet functionality.

  • Install Solana Wallet Adapter
  • Set up a wallet provider
  • Handling transactions

Implementing user authentication and session management

User authentication is very important for setting and managing sessions to provide secure access to the functionality made available by the application.

Type of Authentication: Although possible with the traditional method of email and password, in practice, a wallet-based type of authentication is used for almost every decentralized application.

  • Wallet-based Authentication: A user logs in by simply connecting their wallet, where the public key of the wallet authenticates the user.
  • Session Management: Customarily, the management of sessions in most systems is done by maintaining a session state with a JWT (JSON Web Token) or similar mechanism.

Example Implementation

  • Firebase for Authentication

npm install firebase

  • Set up Firebase Authentication

import firebase from 'firebase/app';
import 'firebase/auth';
const firebaseConfig = {
    apiKey: 'your-api-key',
    authDomain: 'your-auth-domain',
    projectId: 'your-project-id',
    storageBucket: 'your-storage-bucket',
    messagingSenderId: 'your-messaging-sender-id',
    appId: 'your-app-id',
export const auth = firebase.auth();

In the above code,

  • Imports: Loads Firebase core and authentication modules. 
  • Configuration: Defines the firebaseConfig object with necessary Firebase project credentials.
  • Initialization: Initializes the Firebase app with the provided configuration.
  • Export: Exports the auth object for Firebase authentication functionalities.
  • Integrate Authentication in React

import React, { useState } from 'react';
import { auth } from './firebase';

const Auth = () => {
    const [email, setEmail] = useState('');
    const [password, setPassword] = useState('');

    const signUp = async () => {
        try {
            await auth.createUserWithEmailAndPassword(email, password);
        } catch (error) {

    const signIn = async () => {
        try {
            await auth.signInWithEmailAndPassword(email, password);
        } catch (error) {

    return (
            <input type="email" value={email} onChange={(e) => setEmail(e.target.value)} placeholder="Email" />
            <input type="password" value={password} onChange={(e) => setPassword(e.target.value)} placeholder="Password" />
            <button onClick={signUp}>Sign Up</button>
            <button onClick={signIn}>Sign In</button>

export default Auth;

In the above code,

  • Imports: Loads React hooks and Firebase authentication module.
  • State: Manages email and password using useState.
  • Sign-Up Function: Creates a new user with email and password using Firebase authentication.
  • Sign-In Function: Signs in an existing user with email and password using Firebase authentication.
  • Render:
    • Renders input fields for email and password.
    • Renders buttons for "Sign Up" and "Sign In", triggering respective functions on click.
  • Export: Exports the Auth component as default.
  • Include Authentication Component in the App

import React from 'react';
import { WalletContext } from './WalletProvider';
import TransactionButton from './TransactionButton';
import Auth from './Auth';
import './App.css';

function App() {
    return (
p>Welcome to Solana dApp</p

export default App;

In the above code,

  • Imports: React, WalletContext, TransactionButton, Auth, and CSS styles.
  • App Component:
    • Wraps content in WalletContext.
    • Renders a header with a welcome message, Auth, and TransactionButton.
  • Export: Default export of the App component.

Testing and Debugging

Unit testing Solana programs

Writing Test Cases

mod tests {
    use super::*;
    use solana_program::clock::Epoch;
    use solana_program_test::*;
    use solana_sdk::{

    async fn test_increment() {
        let program_id = Pubkey::new_unique();
        let (mut banks_client, payer, recent_blockhash) = ProgramTest::new(

        // Initialize an account with some data

et counter_account = Pubkey::new_unique();
        let mut transaction = Transaction::new_with_payer(
        transaction.sign(&[&payer], recent_blockhash);

        // Test increment functionality
        let mut transaction = Transaction::new_with_payer(
        transaction.sign(&[&payer], recent_blockhash);

        // Verify the counter value
        let counter_account_data = banks_client.get_account(counter_account).await.unwrap().unwrap().data;
        let counter: Counter = Counter::try_from_slice(&counter_account_data).unwrap();
        assert_eq!(counter.count, 1);

In the above code,

  • Imports: Imports necessary modules from Solana program and SDK, including test utilities.
  • Test Module: Defines a test module using #[cfg(test)].
  • Test Function:some text
    • Uses #[tokio::test] for asynchronous testing.
    • Sets up a new program test environment with ProgramTest.
    • Initializes a counter_account with a custom instruction.
    • Processes the transaction to initialize the counter.
    • Creates and processes a transaction to increment the counter.
    • Verifies the counter value is incremented by checking the account data.

Using Solana's test framework

Solana-program-test is built over that to create a rich test framework that is perfect for simulating "blockchain".

  • ProgramTest: A structure to mock the blockchain environment so that you would be able to create your programs' instances and test them.
  • BanksClient: Interface for the simulating blockchain that you can transact and query for an account against.

The test framework supports asynchronous tests using Tokio, so concurrency can be effectively tested.

Debugging Tools and Techniques

Debugging is an essential part of the development process, helping identify and resolve issues in your code.

Common Debugging Strategies

  • Logging: Adding logs to your program can help track its execution and identify issues. Use the msg! macro in Rust to log messages within your Solana programs.
  • Assertions: Use assertions to validate assumptions within your code. They can help catch errors early by ensuring that expected conditions hold true.
  • Step-by-Step Execution: Execute your program step-by-step to monitor its behavior and identify where things go wrong.

Using Solana Explorer and Other Debugging Tools

  • Solana Explorer: A web-based tool that allows you to view transactions, accounts, and program logs on the Solana blockchain. It provides a detailed view of blockchain activity, which can be useful for debugging.
  • Rust Debugger: Use the Rust debugger (rust-gdb or rust-lldb) to step through your code and inspect variables.
  • Solana CLI: The Solana command-line interface provides various commands for querying blockchain data, managing accounts, and submitting transactions, which can aid in debugging.

Example Usage of Solana Explorer:

  • Transaction Details: View transaction details, including input data, logs, and status.
  • Account Information: Inspect the state and history of accounts.

Continuous Integration and Deployment

Continuous integration and deployment (CI/CD) automate the process of testing and deploying your code, ensuring that it remains reliable and up-to-date.

Setting up CI/CD Pipelines

CI/CD pipelines automate the process of building, testing, and deploying your code. Popular CI/CD tools include GitHub Actions, GitLab CI, and Jenkins.

Example: GitHub Actions Workflow
name: CI/CD Pipeline

      - main

    runs-on: ubuntu-latest

      - name: Checkout code
        uses: actions/checkout@v2

      - name: Set up Rust
        uses: actions-rs/toolchain@v1
          toolchain: stable
          target: wasm32-unknown-unknown

      - name: Build the program
        run: cargo build-bpf

      - name: Run tests
        run: cargo test

This workflow is triggered on push to main, checks out the code, sets up Rust, builds the program, and runs tests.

Automated Testing and Deployment

Automated testing ensures that your code is thoroughly tested before deployment, reducing the risk of introducing bugs.

Automated Testing

  • Unit Tests: Run unit tests to verify individual components.
  • Integration Tests: Run integration tests to ensure that components work together correctly.

Automated Deployment

  • Deploy Scripts: Use scripts to automate the deployment of your Solana programs to the blockchain.
  • Environment Configuration: Ensure that your deployment environment is configured correctly, including network settings and access controls.

By implementing CI/CD pipelines, you can streamline the development process, ensuring that your Solana programs are continuously tested and reliably deployed.

Deploying Your Solana dApp

Deploying your Solana decentralized application (dApp) involves several critical steps to ensure it operates smoothly on the mainnet. This section covers preparing for deployment, the deployment process, and post-deployment considerations.

Preparing for Deployment

Before deploying your Solana dApp to the mainnet, ensure thorough testing and optimization.

Final Testing and Optimization

  • Thorough Testing: Ensure all components of your dApp are thoroughly tested, including unit tests, integration tests, and end-to-end tests. Use the Solana testnet to simulate mainnet conditions.
  • Optimization: Optimize your program for performance and efficiency. Review and minimize resource usage, optimize data structures, and ensure your program can handle the expected load.

Setting Up Mainnet Deployment

  • Access to Mainnet: Ensure you have access to the Solana mainnet and sufficient SOL for transaction fees and account creation.
  • Configuration: Update your configuration to point to the mainnet endpoint. Use the Solana CLI to set the correct RPC URL:

solana config set --url https://api.mainnet-beta.solana.com

Deployment Process

The deployment process involves deploying your programs to the mainnet and maintaining them post-deployment.

Deploying Programs to the Mainnet

  • Compile Your Program: Build your program for the BPF target:

cargo build-bpf --release

  • Generate Keypair: Create a keypair for your program

solana-keygen new --outfile /path/to/your_program-keypair.json

  • Deploy the Program: Deploy your program to the mainnet using the Solana CLI

solana program deploy /path/to/your_program.so --keypair /path/to/your_program-keypair.json

  • Note the Program ID: After deployment, note the program ID provided by the CLI. This ID is used to interact with your deployed program.

Updating and Maintaining Deployed Programs

  • Program Upgrades: Use the Solana CLI to upgrade your program when necessary. Deploy a new version of your program and update the existing deployment:

solana program deploy --upgrade /path/to/new_program.so --program-id /path/to/your_program-keypair.json

  • Account Management: Manage and update accounts associated with your program. Ensure data migrations and updates are handled smoothly.

Post-Deployment Considerations

After deploying your dApp, continuous monitoring and user interaction are crucial for success.

Monitoring and Analytics

  • Monitoring Tools: Use monitoring tools to track the performance and health of your dApp. Solana Explorer can be used to monitor transactions, account states, and logs.
  • Analytics: Implement analytics to gather usage data, user behavior, and performance metrics. Tools like Google Analytics can be integrated into your front end to track user interactions.

Handling User Feedback and Updates

  • User Feedback: Collect user feedback to identify issues and areas for improvement. Channels for feedback can include email, social media, or integrated feedback forms.
  • Regular Updates: Regularly update your dApp based on user feedback and performance data. Ensure that updates are thoroughly tested before deployment.
  • Community Engagement: Engage with your user community through forums, social media, and other channels to build a loyal user base and gather valuable insights.

By following these steps, you can ensure a smooth and successful deployment of your Solana dApp, with ongoing maintenance and improvement based on real-world usage and feedback.

Best Practices and Tips on Developing for Solana

Code Structure and Modularity

Organize Your Codebase for Readability and Maintainability

One must structure your project directories logically. For instance, a typical Solana project would keep the smart contract code separate from the client-side code, but still separate tests and documentation into other directories. This makes it very easy to keep up the code's maintainability and to read it. For instance, everything in smart contracts could be within a directory called programs and code for the front end in a src directory. This would keep things organized and clean.

Using Libraries and Modules

Developing with pre-existing libraries and breaking the code down into reusable modules provides a great benefit. There are many libraries, like solana-program for on-chain logic and solana-web3.js for client-side interaction, available in the Solana ecosystem. Modularizing code involves creating separate Rust modules handling various functionalities—for example, instruction handling and state management—to increase reusability and clarity.

Security Best Practices

Secure Coding Guidelines

Check and recheck all inputs for security in your Solana programs, such that no malignant data should in what form whatsoever be damaging the whole application. Always put strong access controls to avoid any kind of unauthorized action. Graceful error handling with informative messages can also keep the data and integrity of your program. Code reviews and third-party audits are important for regularly identifying vulnerabilities.

Regular Audits and Reviews

Conduct constant security audits and review codes in order to be sure that security is solid. These are some practices that you will be able to identify any possible vulnerabilities and ensure consistency in the application of best practices. You can make a similar audit on a periodical basis if you engage independent security experts to get an unbiased assessment of your code.

Performance Tuning

Optimizing for Speed and Efficiency

Optimize your Solana programs with efficient data structures that will use minimal memory and processing time. For example, one can reduce the number of accounts accessed in a single transaction, which in turn reduces the time the program takes for execution and improves performance. This can save computational resources by precomputing and caching values. The architecture of Solana allows parallel execution, which can leverage the design of transactions that minimize dependencies.

Leveraging the unique features of Solana

It has a Sealevel runtime, meaning that a lot of smart contracts can be executed concurrently, thus increasing the throughput. Features such as Proof of History can cut time spent in consensus, thus making transaction finality faster. Those understood and utilized features in developing an application would result in higher performance and increased scalability of the application.

For a more detailed explanation along with some examples, consider checking the official Solana Documentation and resources like the Solana Cookbook which contains a lot of details and practical examples that would see you doing the Solana development practice.

Additional Learning Resources

Official Documentation and Guides

Solana Documentation 

The most important resource you should use to learn about Solana. The main document holds within all the basic concepts, API references, and descriptive guides on, for example, preparation of the environment, writing of smart contracts, or how one can communicate with the Solana network. The official documentation can be found here.

Solana Cookbook

A rich resource of examples with detailed explanations on how to accomplish common tasks when developing with Solana, such as handling accounts, transactions, and deploying programs. An excellent tool for developers looking to develop on Solana with step-by-step guidance and code snippets. Please, check it out for yourself: here.

Web-based Courses and Tutorials

Suggested Course

A few online courses are recommended for you to learn Solana development from ground zero. Soldev is one of the online platforms where you can get crippling online courses on Solana using both video and written content to give proficiency in Solana. The highly recommended courses for beginners are "Solana Blockchain Developer Bootcamp with Rust + JavaScript" and Rise In's "Build on Solana" course.

Tutorials and Hands-on Labs

Find them on the Solana Labs YouTube channel, and there are also some available on Dev.to. These are practical, hands-on tutorials giving a lot of how-to insights: from the basics to deep diving into more advanced topics, it also gives in-depth how-tos of preparations and step-by-step directions to make and deploy Solana programs.

Community and Support

Online Forums and Communities

The community around Solana is very helpful for learning and debugging. Some will even put you in contact with other developers so you can ask questions and help answer some. A few important ones include the Solana Discord server for real-time support and discussions and the Solana subreddit for interacting with the larger community.

Meetups and Conferences

Attend meetups and conferences like the Solana Breakpoint, which bring networking opportunities and insights from the biggest industry experts. Expect a schedule full of interesting workshops, discussions, and panels—plus plenty of time to network with this great community and remain updated on everything concerning the Solana ecosystem. 

With these resources, an individual will gain deep insight into developing with Solana, be conversant with current practices, and belong to the community of developers and experts.


This guide deeply reviewed all Solana development from environment setup, program writing and deploying, and full-stack dApp building to the advanced techniques for performance and security; best practices of code organization and modularity were followed; the process was performed with continuous testing and deployment. Emphasized concurrently is the importance of using official documentation, undertaking online courses, and, of course, using community resources for continued learning and the improvement of skills.

With the ground of blockchain moving so fast, it is very important to experiment with and talk to the community to keep up with the important things. The high performance and special features of Solana vindicate it as one of the important players in blockchain tech that promises an interesting future from a developer's perspective and a wider in-system world. You can also empower yourself through the mastery of Solana development to contribute and be part of the decentralized application and blockchain technology innovators.


A. What is the main purpose of Solana?

Solana aims to provide a high-performance blockchain platform for decentralized applications and cryptocurrencies, focusing on scalability and low transaction costs.

B. What are the key features of Solana that make it suitable for dApp development?

Key features include high throughput (thousands of transactions per second), low transaction fees, and unique technologies like Proof of History (PoH) and parallel execution capabilities.

C. How do I get started with writing my first Solana program?

Start by setting up the Solana CLI and development environment, then follow tutorials on writing and deploying a simple program using Rust and the Solana Program Library (SPL).

D. What are some best practices for Solana development?

Best practices include organizing your codebase modularly, validating all inputs, implementing strict access controls, and regularly conducting security audits and performance optimizations.

E. Where can I find additional resources and community support for learning Solana?

Resources include the Solana Documentation, Solana Cookbook, and community platforms like Discord and Reddit for real-time support and discussions.

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